A commodore is the most basic flag officer rank, a grade higher than a captain and a grade below rear admiral in most rank structures, although some organizations will refer to a captain as a commodore in title only, to show the said captain's seniority over other captains. The Federation also once had a rank of Vice commodore, falling below commodore but above captain. The commodore rank is roughly equivalent with the authority of a brigadier of military forces, and the rear admiral lower half of some service organizations. The Romulan Star Empire has two ranks, senior centurion (enarrain in the Romulan language) and commander general (khre'riov), that are analogous to a commodore's standing. In the Cardassian language, jagul is a Cardassian flag officer rank title which, in translation to Federation Standard, is approximately equivalent to a commodore. In Klingonese, a commodore is referred to as totlh.
In the United Earth Starfleet uniforms of the 22nd century, commodores wore pin insignia of a single rectangular pip surrounded by a silver rectangle. Their Earth Starfleet uniform service jackets also had sleeve insignia of a wide white band with a maroon stripe across it.
Also in the mid-23rd century Starfleet uniform was a commodore's dress uniform, with the rank shown by gold piping on the shoulder seams as well as the collar and front closure.
By the uniform redesign of the 2260s decade, commodores wore a single gold band a couple of inches wide, with a braided stripe on each edge. A commodore's dress uniform remained similar to a captain's, with thick gold braid at the neck and closure, and thin gold piping along the shoulder seam. Some, but not all commodores had dress jackets with the added thin gold piping down to the cuff of the sleeve.
- The TOS Star Fleet Technical Manual incorrectly showed a TOS-era commodore uniform sleeve with three separate rank stripes, an insignia that has been speculated to be that of a fleet captain, and would seem appropriate for a vice commodore also.
In the early 2270s uniform issue, commodore's uniforms had sleeve insignia of three braided rank stripes placed edge-to-edge as a solid group. The commodore's epaulet also bore three stripes.
In the uniforms of the 2280s, commodores wore pin insignia with a single pip-shaped center attached to two command officer flag devices, above and below. Commodores also had gold piping on their uniform closures and a thin checkered flag officer stripe on their left sleeves.
- Before the Star Trek Encyclopedia depicted a fairly accurate version of Robert Fletcher's rank pin designs, other sources presented differing commodore insignia, such as FASA which used a pin that looked like a rounded captain's pin with a sold bar in the middle. Confusingly, that insignia was also used by DC Comics TOS Who's Who in Star Trek, Issue 2 for fleet captain. Shane Johnson's ST Mr. Scott's Guide to the Enterprise showed a commodore pin that was a captain's pin with two additional gold flags attached, and again the insignia was shown in another source, this time the Encyclopedia, representing the rank of fleet captain.
In the uniform insignia introduced in the mid-24th century, a commodore wears five circular silver pips as their rank insignia.
By the 2370s, there were very few officers in Starfleet that held the rank of commodore. Andrea M'Benga once described the rank as being as "old and musty as a laser pistol". The rank was so obscure that many, such as William T. Riker, only regarded it as the informal title given to captains who command other captains. In 2373, Data retrieved information that showed a handful of officers were still on record as holding the rank, although the information was obscure enough that Data could not retrieve a list of their assignments.
In 2375, prior to the final battle of the Dominion War, there were several commodores in the Starfleet fleet that was heading to Cardassia. Commodores from different divisions discussed the structure of the fleet.
In 2380, Mackenzie Calhoun proclaimed Jean-Luc Picard a commodore, when deferring command of his task force. Though initially taken to be a tongue-in-cheek comment, Picard was referred to as the fleet's commodore throughout the mission, by other captains in the force.
- The collar and shoulders of the future uniform was seen on the book cover, and the belt and cuffs were described in the text of Imzadi.
Back in the second half of the 23rd century, the Lyran Star Empire had two grades of commodore, the higher commodore grade, senior commodore, being roughly equivalent to a Starfleet rear admiral and, in most clans, one's performance at that rank was paramount for promotion to the nobility rank of count.
With the Klingonese language calling this rank totlh, a Klingon commodore was equivalent with a brigadier. A Klingon commodore wore a variation of the Klingon flag officer rank pin on their uniform or sash.
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